List of Death in the Illiad

illiad

List of deaths in the Illiad:
 
Antilochus (Greek) kills Echepolus (Trojan) (spear in the head) (4.529)
Agenor (Trojan) kills Elephenor (Greek) (spear in the side) (4.543)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Simoeisius (Trojan) (speared in the nipple) (4.549)
Antiphus (Trojan) kills Leucus (Greek) (speared in the groin) (4.569)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Democoön (Trojan) (spear through the head) (4.579)
Peirous (Trojan) kills Diores (Greek) (hit with a rock, then speared in the gut) (4.598)
Thoas (Greek) kills Peirous (Trojan) (spear in the chest, sword in the gut) (4.608)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Phegeus (Trojan) (spear in the chest) (5.19)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Odius (Trojan) (spear in the back) (5.42)
Idomeneus (Greek) kills Phaestus (spear in the shoulder) (5.48)
Menelaus (Greek) kills Scamandrius (spear in the back) (5.54)
Meriones (Greek) kills Phereclus (Trojan) (spear in the buttock) (5.66)
Meges (Greek) kills Pedaeus (Greek) (spear in the neck) (5.78)
Eurypylus (Greek) kills Hypsenor (Trojan) (arm cut off) (5.86)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Astynous (Trojan) (spear in the chest) (5.164)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Hypeiron (Trojan) (sword in the collar bone) (5.165)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Abas (Trojan) (5.170)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Polyidus (Trojan) (5.170)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Xanthus (Trojan) (5.174)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Thoon (Trojan) (5.174)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Echemmon (Trojan) (5.182)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Chromius (Trojan) (5.182)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Pandarus (Trojan) (spear in the nose) (5.346)
Diomedes (Greek) wounds Aeneas (Trojan) with a rock (5.359)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Deicoon (Trojan), spear in the stomach (5.630)
Aeneas (Trojan) kills Crethon (Greek)
Aeneas (Trojan) kills Orsilochus (Greek)
Menelaus (Greek) kills Phlaemenes (Trojan), spear in the collar bone (5.675)
Antilochus (Greek) kills Mydon (Trojan), sword in the head, stomped by his horses (5.680)
Hector (Trojan) kills Menesthes (Greek) (5.714)
Hector (Trojan) kills Anchialus (Greek) (5.714)
Ajax son of Telamon kills Amphion (Trojan), spear in the gut (5.717)
Sarpedon (Trojan) kills Tlepolemus (Greek), spear in the neck (5.764)
Tlepolemus (Greek) wounds Sarpedon (Trojan) spear in the thigh (5.764)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Cocranus (Trojan) (5.783)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Alastor (Trojan) (5.783)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Chromius (Trojan) (5.783)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Alcandrus (Trojan) (5.784)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Halius (Trojan) (5.784)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Noemon (Trojan) (5.784)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Prytanis (Trojan) (5.784)
Hector (Trojan) kills Teuthras (Greek) (5.811)
Hector (Trojan) kills Orestes (Greek) (5.811)
Hector (Trojan) kills Trechus (Greek) (5.812)
Hector (Trojan) kills Oenomaus (Greek) (5.812)
Hector (Trojan) kills Helenus (Greek) (5.813)
Hector (Trojan) kills Oresbius (Greek) (5.813)
Ares kills Periphas (Greek) (5.970)
Diomedes wounds Ares in the gut (5.980)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Acamas (Trojan), spear in the head (6.9)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Axylus (Trojan) (6.14)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Calesius (Trojan) (6.20)
Euryalus (Greek) kills Dresus (Trojan) (6.23)
Euryalus (Greek) kills Opheltius (Trojan) (6.23)
Euryalus (Greek) kills Aesepus (Trojan) (6.24)
Euryalus (Greek) kills Pedasus (Trojan) (6.24)
Polypoetes (Greek) kills Astyalus (Trojan) (6.33)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Pidytes (Trojan), with his spear (6.34)
Teucer (Greek) kills Aretaon (Trojan) (6.35)
Antilochus (Greek) kills Ableros (Trojan), with his spear (6.35)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Elatus (Trojan) (6.38)
Leitus (Greek) kills Phylacus (Trojan) (6.41)
Eurypylus (Greek) kills Melanthus (6.42)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Adrestus (Trojan), spear in the side (6.76)
Paris (Trojan) kills Menesthius (Greek) (7.8)
Hector (Trojan) kills Eioneus (Greek), spear in the neck (7.11)
Glaucus (Trojan) kills Iphinous (Greek), spear in the shoulder (7.13)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Eniopeus (Trojan), spear in the chest (8.138)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Agelaos (Trojan), spear in the back (8.300)
Teucer (Greek) kills Orsilochos (Trojan), with an arrow (8.321)
Teucer (Greek) kills Ormenus (Trojan), with an arrow (8.321)
Teucer (Greek) kills Ophelestes (Trojan), with an arrow (8.321)
Teucer (Greek) kills Daitor (Trojan), with an arrow (8.322)
Teucer (Greek) kills Chromius (Trojan), with an arrow (8.322)
Teucer (Greek) kills Lycophontes (Trojan), with an arrrow (8.322)
Teucer (Greek) kills Amopaon (Trojan), with an arrow (8.323)
Teucer (Greek) kills Melanippus (Trojan), with an arrow (8.323)
Teucer (Greek) kills Gorgythion (Trojan), with an arrow (8.353)
Teucer (Greek) kills Archeptolemos (Trojan), with an arrow (8.363)
Hector (Trojan) wounds Teucer (Greek), with a rock (8.380)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Dolon (Trojan), sword across the neck (10.546)
Diomedes (Greek) kills twelve sleeping Thracian soldiers (10.579) (includes Rhesus)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Bienor (Trojan) (11.99)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Oileus (Trojan), spear in the head, (11.103)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Isus (Trojan), spear in the chest (11.109)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Antiphus (Trojan), sword in the head (11.120)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Peisander (Trojan), spear in the chest (11.160)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Hippolochus (Trojan), sword cuts off his head (11.165)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Iphidamas T), sword in the neck (11.270)
Coön (Trojan) wounds Agamemnon (Greek), spear in the arm (11.288)
Agamemnon (Greek) kills Coön (Trojan), spear in the side (11.295)
Hector (Trojan) kills Asaeus (Greek) (11.341)
Hector (Trojan) kills Autonous (Greek) (11.341)
Hector (Trojan) kills Opites (Greek) (11.341)
Hector (Trojan) kills Dolops (Greek) (11.342)
Hector (Trojan) kills Opheltius (Greek) (11.324)
Hector (Trojan) kills Agelaus (Greek) (11.325)
Hector (Trojan) kills Aesymnus (Greek) (11.325)
Hector (Trojan) kills Orus (Greek) (11.343)
Hector (Trojan) kills Hipponous (Greek) (11.325)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Thymbraeus (Trojan), spear in the chest (11.364)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Molion (Trojan) (11.366)
Diomedes (Greek) kills two sons of Merops (Trojan) (11.375)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Hippodamas (Trojan) (11.381)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Hypeirochus (Trojan) (11.381)
Diomedes (Greek) kills Agastrophus (Trojan), spear in the hip (11.384)
Paris (Trojan) wounds Diomedes (Greek), arrow in the foot (11.430)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Deïopites (Trojan) (11.479)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Thoön (Trojan) (11.481)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Ennomus (Greek) (11.481)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Chersidamas (Trojan), spear in the groin (11.481)
Odyssues (Greek) kills Charops (Trojan) (11.485)
Odysseus (Greek) kills Socus (Trojan), spear in the back (11.506)
Socus (Trojan) wounds Odysseus (Greek), spear in the ribs (11.493)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Doryclus (Trojan) (11.552)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Pandocus (Trojan) (11.553)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Lysander (Trojan) (11.554)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Pyrasus (Trojan) (11.554)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Pylantes (Trojan) (11.554)
Eurypylus (Greek) kills Apisaon (Trojan), spear in the liver (11.650)
Polypoetes (Greek) kills Damasus (Trojan), spear through the cheek (12.190);
Polypoetes (Greek) kills Pylon (Trojan) (12.194)
Polypoetes (Greek) kills Ormenus (Trojan) (12.194)
Leonteus (Greek) kills Hippomachus, spear in the stomach (12.196)
Leonteus (Greek) kills Antiphates (Trojan), struck with a sword (12.198)
Leonteus (Greek) kills Menon (Trojan) (12.201)
Leonteus (Greek) kills Iamenus (Trojan) (12.201)
Leonteus (Greek) kills Orestes (Trojan) (12.201)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Epicles (Trojan), rock in the skull (12.416)
Teucer (Greek) wounds Glaucus (Trojan), arrow in the arm (12.425)
Sarpedon (Trojan) kills Alcmaon (Greek), spear in the body (12.434)
Teucer (Greek) kills Imbrius (Trojan), spear in the ear (13.198)
Hector (Trojan) kills Amphimachus (Greek), spear in the chest (13.227)
Idomeneus (Greek) kills Othryoneus (Trojan), spear in the gut, (13.439 ff)
Idomeneus (Greek) kills Asius (Trojan), spear in the neck (13.472)
Antilochus (Greek) kills Asius’ charioteer, spear in the gut (13.482)
Deïphobus (Trojan) kills Hypsenor (Greek), spear in the liver (13.488) (wounded?)
Idomeneus (Greek) kills Alcathous (Trojan), spear in the chest (13.514 ff)
Idomeneus (Greek) kills Oenomaus (Trojan), spear in the stomach (13.608)
Deïphobus (Trojan) kills Ascalaphus (Greek), spear in the shoulder (13.621)
Meriones (Greek) wounds Deïphobus (Trojan) spear in the arm (13.634)
Aeneas (Trojan) kills Aphareus (Greek), spear in the throat (13.647)
Antilochus (Greek) kills Thoön (Greek), spear in the back) (13.652).
Meriones (Greek) kills Adamas (Trojan), spear in the testicles (13.677).
Helenus (Trojan) kills Deïpyrus (Greek), sword on the head (13.687)
Menelaus (Greek) wounds Helenus (Trojan), spear in the hand (13.705)
Menelaus (Greek) kills Peisander (Trojan), sword in the head (13.731)
Meriones (Greek) kills Harpalion (Trojan), arrow in the buttock (13.776)
Paris (Trojan) kills Euchenor (Greek), arrow in the jaw (13.800)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) hits Hector (Trojan) with a rock (14.477)
Ajax son of Oileus (Greek) kills Satnius (Trojan), spear in the side (14.517)
Polydamas (Trojan) kills Prothoënor (Greek), spear in the shoulder (14.525)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Archelochus, spear in the neck (14.540)
Acamas (Trojan) kills Promachus (Greek), spear (14.555)
Peneleus (Greek) kills Ilioneus (Trojan), spear in the eye (14.570)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Hyrtius (14.597)
Meriones (Greek) kills Morys (14.601)
Meriones (Greek) kills Hippotion (14.601)
Teucer (Greek) kills Prothoön (Trojan) (14.602)
Teucer (Greek) kills Periphetes (Trojan) (14.602)
Menelaus (Greek) kills Hyperenor (Trojan), spear in the side (14.603)
Phalces (Trojan) killed (death not mentioned but armor stripped) (14.600)
Mermerus (Trojan) killed (death not mentioned but armor stripped) (14.600)
Hector (Trojan) kills Stichius (Greek) (15.389)
Hector (Trojan) kills Aresilaus (Greek) (15.389)
Aeneas (Trojan) kills Medon (Greek) (15.392)
Aeneas (Trojan) kills Iasus (Greek) (15.392)
Polydamas (Trojan) kills Mecistus (Greek) (15.399)
Polites (Trojan) kills Echius (Greek) (15.400)
Agenor (Trojan) kills Clonius (15.401)
Paris (Trojan) kills Deïochus (Greek), spear through the back (15.402)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Caletor (Trojan), spear in the chest (15.491)
Hector (Trojan) kills Lycophron (Greek) spear in the head (15.503)
Teucer (Greek) kills Cleitus (Greek), arrow in the back of the neck (15.521)
Hector (Trojan) kills Schedius (Greek) (15.607)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Laodamas (Trojan) (15.608)
Polydamas (Trojan) kills Otus (Greek) (15.610)
Meges (Greek) kills Croesmus (Trojan), spear in the chest (15.616)
Menelaus (Greek) kills Dolops (Trojan), speared in the back (15.636)
Antilochus (Greek) kills Melanippus (Trojan), spear in the chest (15.675)
Hector (Trojan) kills Periphetes (Greek), spear in the chest (15.744)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Pyraechmes (Trojan), spear in the shoulder (16.339)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Areilycus (Trojan), spear in the thigh (16.361)
Menelaus (Greek) kills Thoas (Trojan), spear in the chest (16.365)
Meges (Greek) kills Amphiclus (Trojan), spear in the leg (16.367)
Antilochus (Greek) kills Atymnius (Trojan), spear in the side (16.372)
Thrasymedes (Greek) kills Maris (Trojan), spear in the shoulder (16.377)
Ajax son of Oileus (Greek) kills Cleobulus (Trojan), sword in the neck (16.386)
Peneleus (Greek) kills Lyco (Greek), sword in the neck (16.395)
Meriones (Greek) kills Acamas (Trojan), spear in the shoulder (16.399)
Idomeneus (Greek) kills Erymas (Trojan), spear in the mouth (16.403)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Pronous (Trojan), spear in the chest (16.464)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Thestor (Trojan), spear in the head (16.477)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Erylaus (Trojan), rock on the head (16.479)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Erymas (Trojan) (16.484)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Amphoterus (Trojan) (16.484)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Epaltes (Trojan) (16.484)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Tlepolemus (Trojan) (16.485)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Echius (Trojan) (16.485)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Pyris (Trojan) (16.486)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Ipheus (Trojan) (16.486)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Euippus (Trojan) (16.486)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Polymelus (Trojan) (16.486)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Thrasymedes (Trojan), spear in the gut (16.542)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Sarpedon (Trojan), spear in the chest (16.559)
Hector (Trojan) kills Epeigeus (Greek), rock on the head (16.666)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Sthenelaus (Trojan), rock on the head (16.682)
Glaucus (Trojan) kills Bathycles (Greek), spear in the chest (16.691)
Meriones (Greek) kills Laogonus (Trojan), spear in the jaw (16.702)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Adrestus (Trojan) (16.808)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Autonous (Trojan) (16.809)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Echeclus (Trojan) (16.809)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Perimus (Trojan) (16.809)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Epistor (Trojan) (16.810)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Melanippus (Trojan) (16.810)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Elasus (Trojan) (16.811)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Mulius (Trojan) (16.811)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Pylantes (Trojan) (16.811)
Patroclus (Greek) kills Cebriones (Trojan), rock in the head (16.859)
Hector (Trojan) kills Patroclus (Greek) (16.993)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Hippothous (Trojan), spear in the head (17.377)
Hector (Trojan) kills Scedius (Greek), spear in the collar (17.393)
Ajax son of Telamon (Greek) kills Phorcys (Trojan), spear in the gut (17.399)
Aeneas (Trojan) kills Leocritus (Greek), (17.439);
Lycomedes (Greek) kills Apisaon (Trojan) (17.443)
Automedon (Greek) kills Aretus (Trojan), spear in the gut (17.636)
Menelaus (Trojan) kills Podes (Trojan), spear in the stomach (17.704)
Hector (Trojan) kills Coeranus (Greek), spear in the head (17.744)
Achilles (Greek) kills Iphition (Trojan), spear in the head (20.463)
Achilles (Greek) kills Demoleon (Trojan), spear in the head (20.476)
Achilles (Greek) kills Hippodamas (Trojan), spear in the back (20.480)
Achilles (Greek) kills Polydorus (Trojan), spear in the back (20.488)
Achilles (Greek) kills Dryops (Trojan), spear in the knee, sword thrust (20.546)
Achilles (Greek) kills Demouchos (Trojan) spear thrust (20.548).
Achilles (Greek) kills Laogonus (Trojan), spear thrust (20.551)
Achilles (Greek) kills Dardanus (Trojan), sword thrust (20.551)
Achilles (Greek) kills Tros (Trojan), sword in the liver (20.555)
Achilles (Greek) kills Mulius (Trojan), spear in the head (20.567)
Achilles (Greek) kills Echeclus (Trojan), sword on the head (20.569)
Achilles (Greek) kills Deucalion (Trojan), sword in the neck (20.573)
Achilles (Greek) kills Rhigmus (Trojan), spear in the gut (20.581)
Achilles (Greek) kills Areithous (Trojan), spear in the back (20.586)
Achilles (Greek) kills Lycaon (Trojan), sword in the neck (21.138)
Achilles (Greek) kills Asteropaeus (Trojan), sword in the stomach (21.215)
Achilles (Greek) kills Thersilochus (Trojan) (21.249)
Achilles (Greek) kills Mydon (Trojan) (21.249)
Achilles (Greek) kills Astypylus (Trojan) (21.250)
Achilles (Greek) kills Mnesus (Trojan) (21.250)
Achilles (Greek) kills Thrasius (Trojan) (21.250)
Achilles (Greek) kills Aenius (Trojan) (21.250)
Achilles (Greek) kills Ophelestes (Trojan) (21.251)
Achilles (Greek) kills Hector (Trojan), spear through the throat (22.410)

Ancient Egyptian Games: Hounds and Jackals

hounds-and-jackals

The statues and pyramids, the Nile river and the desert, the hieroglyphics and the Rosetta Stone get all the press, but the ancient Egyptians enjoyment of play and especially games from athletic demonstrations of strength to board games which we’ll focus upon the most popular one here.  They had toys made of clay and wood and fashioned balls out of leather. They loved to dance and also loved to swim in the Nile River. Board games and pictures depicting people dancing in circles have been found in tombs dating back thousands of years.

Hounds and Jackals is an ancient Egyptian game, which came into existence during the Middle Kingdom (circa 2135 – 1986 BCE).  It is a racing game, in the same category as Senet, Aseb, and the Royal Game of Ur.

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The game was originally discovered by William Mathew Flinders Petrie and published by him in 1890. Since then over 40 examples of the game have been found in Egypt, Israel, Syria, Iran and around the Levant and Mediterranean.

The original name of the game is unknown. Petrie called The Game of 58 Holes, since the game board that he found contained two sets of 29 holes. Later, when Howard Carter discovered the fanciest known copy of the game, the modern name was invented,The Game of Hounds and Jackals, since the playing pieces had heads of dogs and jackals on them.  Carter found one complete gaming set in a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. A third, least common, common name for the game was Shen for the Egyptian hieroglyph which was written on some of the examples, around the big hole at the top of the game.

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The original rules for Hounds and Jackals are unknown. There have been many reconstruction attempts by historians and archaeologists. Gaming pieces are ten small sticks with either jackal or dog heads. The aim of the game was perhaps to start at one point on the board and to reach with all figures another point on the board. Players navigate their ivory pegs through the holes on the surface by rolling sticks, dice or knuckle-bones. To win, a player must be the first one to move all of their five pieces off the board.In the 1956 movie The 10 Commandments, Pharaoh Seti and Nefretiri are depicted playing the game.

 

 

 

Mindfulness & Mental Health: Introducing DBT

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Mindfulness is no longer just for practitioners of Zen and Buddhism but has moved into the mainstream Mental Health counseling. It has become one of the primary techniques employed among many therapists and coupled with meditation has shown tremendous amounts of improvements in otherwise non-responsive patients. As science furthers more and more we are seeing them recognize the benefits of Zen in daily practice. As NAMI (National Alliance on Mental Illness) describes it, “While the combination of therapy and medication is crucial to recovery, the addition of self-awareness tools and skills can also be beneficial. Whether you are just beginning your recovery or are further along on your journey, the holistic practices can be an excellent complement to therapy and medication.”

While many treatment programs employ the use of mindfulness, I will focus on DBT (Dialectical Behavioral Therapy) in my analysis. So what is DBT? “Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), is a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral treatment that was originally developed to treat chronically suicidal individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). DBT has been found especially effective for those with suicidal and other multiply occurring severely dysfunctional behaviors. Research has shown DBT to be effective in reducing suicidal behavior, psychiatric hospitalization, treatment dropout, substance abuse, anger, and interpersonal difficulties,” (behavioraltech.org). So what exactly does all that mean? It is a non-judgmental way of the patient accepting that they have a problem with how they think, and rather than judge it, they can make changes to make their thinking more balanced using mindfulness as one of the primary techniques.

What is mindfulness within this context? The best and simplest definition I have come across is, “doing one thing at a time, in the present moment, with your full attention, and with acceptance,” (DBT Made Simple). This can be further broken down into two parts for the patient. First, awareness and focusing on the present moment. The second part is acceptance, and this is the part that seems to be overlooked. This requires not judging what you are doing mindfully. A large percentage of patients respond well to this primarily, in my opinion, because they are taking control of their mind. Most patients, as is the case with most people in general spend far too much time in the past reliving negative things and mindfulness is a way to put a stop sign up to this harmful cycle.

How is mindfulness employed? There are a multitude of ways this is employed in your everyday life, but I will briefly cover seven of them:
1. Counting breaths. Count your breaths up to ten. One on the inhale and two on the exhale and so on. When you find your mind has wandered, simply return to counting your breath without judgment.
2. Observing sounds. Sitting silently focus your mind on any sounds which you hear: the sound of your breath, the traffic outside, the air-conditioner, etc. When you catch your mind wandering, take note of it without judgment and return to observing sounds.
3. Observing an object. Pick an object, any object. Examine the object with all of your five senses. Touch it. Smell it. Take note of any sound it makes when you move it. When you mind wanders, simply bring your attention back to the object.
4. Observing your thoughts in a cloud. Also could be called labeling your thoughts. You imagine yourself lying in a field of grass looking up at the sky. In each cloud is a thought and as it floats by you label what kind of thought it is without judging yourself for having that thought. For instance if you think this is a stupid exercise, that would be an anger thought. If you think how will I pay my house payment next month, that would be a worry thought.
5. Focusing on a thought. Pick a meaningful thought or short sentence and focus on the thought as you breathe. For instance if you think wise as you breathe in and think mind as you breathe out. When your mind wanders return to your thought without judging yourself.
6. Being the gatekeeper to your mind. This is more simply observing your thoughts. As a gatekeeper would watch people coming through a gate, you will simply experience and observe each thought as it passes over you without judging it. Experience thoughts and emotions as they come to you, do not try to block them. When your mind wanders or you feel yourself trying to stop thoughts simply return to the practice of observing them without judging the thoughts or yourself.
7. Being in your body. Quietly sitting, focus on the different sensations you experience in your body. For example, the feel of your bottom on the chair or your arms against the armrests. Take notice of any emotions you might be feeling, such as worry over a presentation you have at work next week. When your mind wanders simply return your thoughts to your body without judgment.

Ancient Egyptian Games: Senet

game-nefertari

The statues and pyramids, the Nile river and the desert, the hieroglyphics and the Rosetta Stone get all the press, but the ancient Egyptians enjoyment of play and especially games from athletic demonstrations of strength to board games which we’ll focus upon the most popular one here.  They had toys made of clay and wood and fashioned balls out of leather. They loved to dance and also loved to swim in the Nile River. Board games and pictures depicting people dancing in circles have been found in tombs dating back thousands of years.

senet

Senet was the most popular game of the ancient Egyptians.  The oldest hieroglyph resembling a senet game dates to around 3100 BC.  The full name of the game meant the “game of passing” in ancient Egyptian.  One of the oldest known Senet board representations ever found was a painting from 2,686 B.C. in the tomb of Hesy-Ra. The board game had three rows of ten squares. Some of the squares had symbols which represented bad and good fortune. Two sets of pawns were used to play the game. The object of the game was to be the first player to pass into the afterlife unscathed by bad fortunes along the way.  People are depicted playing senet in a painting in the tomb of Rashepes, as well as from other tombs of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties (c. 2500 BC).   The oldest intact senet boards date to the Middle Kingdom, but graffiti on Fifth and Sixth Dynasty monuments could date as early as the Old Kingdom.

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At least by the time of the New Kingdom in Egypt (1550–1077 BC), senet was conceived as a representation of the journey of the ka (the vital spark) to the afterlife. This connection is made in the Great Game Text, which appears in a number of papyri, as well as the appearance of markings of religious significance on senet boards themselves. The game is also referred to in chapter XVII of the Book of the Dead.  Senet also was played by people in neighboring cultures, and it probably came to those places through trade relationships between Egyptians and local peoples.

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The senet gameboard is a grid of 30 squares, arranged in three rows of ten. A senet board has two sets of pawns (at least five of each).The movement of the counters was decided by throwing four two-sided sticks or, in some cases, knucklebones.  Although details of the original game rules are a subject of some conjecture, senet historians Timothy Kendall and R. C. Bell have made their own reconstructions of the game.  These rules are based on snippets of texts that span over a thousand years, over which time gameplay is likely to have changed. Therefore, it is unlikely these rules reflect the actual course of ancient Egyptian gameplay.   Their rules have been adopted by sellers of modern senet sets.

Ta’amia

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Ta’amia was very popular with the Ancient Egyptians and continues to be popular in the middle east today. It was made with fava beans, but these can be substituted with chickpeas to make the well known version of Ta’amia known as falafel.

Ingredients

  • 1 lb fava beans soaked overnight and drained
  • 2 cloves garlic, finely chopped
  • 2 large onions, finely chopped
  • 1-2 teaspoons ground coriander
  • 1-2 teaspoons cumin
  • 1 teaspoon cayenne pepper
  • 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1/4 cup minced parsley
  • A pinch of salt
  • Black pepper to taste
  • Sesame seeds to coat the cakes
  • Olive oil for frying

Preparation

  1. Ensure the beans are soft and remove their skins. Mix the beans together with all of the ingredients except the oil and sesame seeds and either mash or blend them in a food processor until you have a thick paste.
  2. Set the paste aside for 30 minutes to allow the flavours to set.
  3. Knead the mixture and form into small round cakes about 2cm thick.
  4. Sprinkle each side of the cakes with sesame seeds and shallow fry in hot olive oil for two to three minutes until golden brown.
  5. Serve with flat bread and lettuce tossed in olive oil, lemon juice and pepper. Alternatively you can also serve with a tahini dip.

Mindfulness: I’m too busy and other excuses…

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The practice of mindfulness takes patience and dedication and the litany of excuses not to practice are endless, but I will attempt to debunk a few of the more common ones.

“It makes me more anxious”

Some people, especially people with anxiety issues, find practicing mindfulness increases their anxiety.  This is an understandable reaction, but not enough to give up on the practice.  It is often found that the exercises focusing on breathing cause the most anxiety.  Simply focus on the non-breathing focused exercises to begin and once you become comfortable with mindfulness practice come back to the breathing exercises.

 I just can’t do it

What exactly does the person mean by this?  Is it just too hard?  Are they having difficulties concentrating?  Do they believe to be successful thoughts and feeling never intrude?  Many people say they can’t do it when they just mean it is really hard.  Truth is practicing mindfulness is a hard skill and the only way to get better is to keep pursuing it.

I don’t have time

This is one of the simplest problems to fix.  You can practice mindfulness anytime, doing anything.  If what you mean is you don’t have time for formal practice, let me remind you some of the exercises only take a few to ten minutes.  It is better to spend 10 minutes fully dedicated than an hour half-heartedly.  Try setting aside 10 minutes in the morning to practice mindfulness.

I can’t stay focused

Mindfulness is simply about staying in the present moment with acceptance.  Please throw any other expectations out the window.  The object of practicing mindfulness for many is to feel better.  It is with this in mind that we reach a paradox.  To feel better you must practice mindfulness, but if you focus on feeling better you have trouble staying focused on mindfulness.  So throw away the goal while practicing mindfulness and you will achieve that goal.

I fall asleep

Some people find they drift off when they practice mindfulness.  If the person has trouble sleeping this can be a good thing, simply practice mindfulness of part of your preparing for bed routine.  There are several factors to consider if this is a common issue:

  • Do you need more sleep? If you are sleep deprived your body will want to take advantage of this quiet time.
  • Is there a better time of day to practice? If at the end of the day you are always exhausted, simply begin practicing in the morning.
  • Did you eat a big meal shortly before practicing? Watch out for a food coma!
  • Is there a different position you can try? If you practice mindfulness lying down, simply try it is a sitting position.
  • Are you closing your eyes? Keep your eyes open while practicing.

You have to plan for the future

Some people believe that practicing mindfulness means you never consider the past or the future.  This simply is not the case, but you may be able to do those things mindfully whereas you do not currently.  Often planning for the future isn’t planning at all, but instead it is worrying.  Mindfulness actually helps you in planning for the future by keeping you grounded in reality of the present moment.

The Sixteen Bodhisattva Precepts

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THE THREE TREASURES

  • Taking refuge in the Buddha
  • Taking refuge in the Dharma
  • Taking refuge in the Sangha

The Three Pure Precepts

  • Do not create Evil
  • Practice Good
  • Actualize Good For Others

 The Ten Grave Precepts

  • Respect life – Do not kill
  • Be giving – Do not steal
  • Honor the body – Do not misuse sexuality
  • Manifest truth – Do not lie
  • Proceed clearly – Do not cloud the mind
  • See the perfection – Do not speak of others errors and faults
  • Realize self and other as one – Do not elevate the self and blame others
  • Give generously – Do not be withholding
  • Actualize harmony – Do not be angry
  • Experience the intimacy of things – Do not defile the Three Treasures