In Greek: παστέλι, pronounced pah-STEH-lee
In markets these days you can find sesame honey bars. The main difference is that the ancient Greeks did not have refined sugar. The sugar used today helps to harden the bars and make them crunchy. The ancient version was chewier, but simple to make with only two ingredients: sesame seeds and honey.
Warning: The quality and taste of the honey will have an effect on the final product.
Pasteli can be eaten as a candy at any time, or as an energy booster, and it is a wonderful accompaniment to tea.
- 1 1/3 cups honey
- 3 cups hulled white sesame seeds
- Optional: 1 strip lemon peel (about 1/4 x 1 inch)
In a saucepan, bring honey and lemon peel, if using, to a boil. Add sesame seeds, stirring continuously and continue to cook while stirring to mix completely and thoroughly. When the seeds are fully mixed in and the mixture has boiled again, remove from heat. Remove lemon peel and discard.
Place a piece of baking parchment on a cool work surface and spread out the hot mixture thinly and evenly (about 1/4 inch high).
When the pasteli cools to room temperature, refrigerate on the parchment paper (it doesn’t need to be covered). Chill for at least 2 to 3 hours.
With kitchen shears, cut the pasteli together with parchment paper into small pieces, and serve.
To eat, peel off the parchment paper. Store in the refrigerator.
Ancient Egyptian bread was made of barley, millet, and once available, wheat. Though not always combined, sometimes two or all three of these were used in a single recipe. Bread was a very simplistic form. Yeast did not exist in Egypt until well into the Middle Kingdom and was not particularly popular until the New Kingdom era, so loaves were what we would consider today “flat” breads.
Bread consisted of only three simple ingredients:
- Flour made from barley, millet or wheat.
- Leavening: leavening nowadays means yeast, but Egypt used sourdough starters or spent brewery grains which, unknown to them, had yeast in it.
To this basic recipe, flavorings were often added prior to baking: sesame seeds, honey, herbs, oil, egg washes, fruits and even sometimes bits of leftover chopped meat were added to help spice up these supplementary loaves.
Ancient Egyptian Bread Recipe:
- Mix three parts flour to one part water. Mix with your hands until it forms a sticky dough. If needed, add more water. You’re looking for the dough to pull away from the side of the bowl, as in normal bread.
- Use a sourdough starter or ground brewery grain if available. You can grind brewery grain in a food processor.
- Let rise for thirty minutes, separate into rounds, place on a baking sheet and insert into a 300 degree oven. If you have an outdoor fireplace that is food safe or barbecue grill these work wonderfully to recreate the same sorts of cooking environments these recipes originally came from.
- Cook for around 45 minutes. Check halfway through with a knife, when it comes out clean, pull your bread from the oven and let it cool.
- Slice like a pizza and serve with the accompaniments of your choice.
Ta’amia was very popular with the Ancient Egyptians and continues to be popular in the middle east today. It was made with fava beans, but these can be substituted with chickpeas to make the well known version of Ta’amia known as falafel.
- 1 lb fava beans soaked overnight and drained
- 2 cloves garlic, finely chopped
- 2 large onions, finely chopped
- 1-2 teaspoons ground coriander
- 1-2 teaspoons cumin
- 1 teaspoon cayenne pepper
- 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
- 1/4 cup minced parsley
- A pinch of salt
- Black pepper to taste
- Sesame seeds to coat the cakes
- Olive oil for frying
- Ensure the beans are soft and remove their skins. Mix the beans together with all of the ingredients except the oil and sesame seeds and either mash or blend them in a food processor until you have a thick paste.
- Set the paste aside for 30 minutes to allow the flavours to set.
- Knead the mixture and form into small round cakes about 2cm thick.
- Sprinkle each side of the cakes with sesame seeds and shallow fry in hot olive oil for two to three minutes until golden brown.
- Serve with flat bread and lettuce tossed in olive oil, lemon juice and pepper. Alternatively you can also serve with a tahini dip.